After the beginnings of the early 20th century, the movement of naturism developed rapidly. More and more associations were founded and they realised the naturist approach at many places in Germany.
The name Adolf Koch with his "Institut für Freikörperkultur" [en: "Institute for the Culture of Naturism"] refers the establishment of the "Adolf Koch School for the Culture of Naturism", in which he taught and practised nude sports and, i.e., also nude dance. A total of eleven such schools for the culture of naturism existed across Germany.
In the context of reformed pedagogics, as an answer to the encrusted structures of school in the Victorian and Wilhelminian period, some schools were founded in Germany and in England, which also taught and practised nude education of sports and partly also supported nude activities at leisure time.
In 1933, a term began with the nazi's Third Reich, in which the naturist associations were merged to the so-called "Federation for Leibeszucht*)". But the culture of naturism remained an active scene.
After the war, the naturists' scene developed quite differently in the GDR and the FRG. In the GDR, a naturist lifestyle became a mass movement after the initial prohibitions in the 1950s. From about 1970 onwards, it became, together with nude swimming, more and more popular.
In the FRG, the naturists' associations experienced a strong increase of members, but due to the competition by many "wild", i.e. tolerated naturist areas at lakes and rivers, an ongoing decrease. Today, most naturists' associations - like many other associations - are suffering from a lack of new members.
*) Perhaps simply a term for »sports«, where the German »Zucht« is an old word for »Erziehung« [en: »education«] – »Leibeszucht« [en: education of the body].
Without in-depth studies on the regarding history and on the derivation of that term, a verified translation cannot be made.
Case law in Germany distinguished even until 1970 punishment of committed crime between »Gefängnis« and »Zuchthaus« (in German). Both terms can be translated to »jail«, butter the latter meant »jail with harsher conditions for prisoners, who were sentenced to imprisonment for crimes, which were not endangered with the death penalty, but where an essential part of that penalty was the compulsion to harsh physical work, often to exhaustion, for example in quarries or in cutting of peat«.